Population: 289835 people
Newcastle upon Tyne (RP: i/ˌnjuːkɑːsəl əˌpɒn ˈtaɪn/;Locally: i/njuːˌkæsəl əˌpən ˈtaɪn/), commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear in North East England. Located 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London, it is situated on the north western bank of the River Tyne's estuary and centred 8.5 mi (13.7 km) from the North Sea. Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East region and lies at the urban core of the Tyneside, the seventh most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom and the most populous in the North East. Newcastle is a member of the English Core Cities Group and, with Gateshead, the Eurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, a status it retained until becoming part of the Tyne and Wear metropolitan county in 1974. The regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie.
The city developed in the location of the Roman settlement called Pons Aelius. It was named for the castle built in 1080, by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son. The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, and it later became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the river, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, learning, digital technology, retail, tourism and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA. Among its main icons are Newcastle Brown Ale, a leading brand of beer; Newcastle United F.C., a Premier League football team; and the Tyne Bridge. It has hosted the world's most popular half marathon, the Great North Run, since it began in 1981.